The Natural History of Rabies

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The fourth survivor was a Mexican boy who received vaccine after being bitten by a dog in and developed neurologic disease and coma, from which he recovered with severe sequelae, including quadriparesis and visual impairment, only to die four years later. Since then nine more cases have been reported with a USA teenage girl becoming the first survivor in without receiving any form of immunization.

Her treatment resulted in the development of the Milwaukee protocol, using an induced coma and antiviral cocktail therapy, which has been used with limited success in subsequent cases. These reported recoveries have inspired intense efforts to treat patients, but at most prolongation of the morbid period has been achieved. Because rabies affects the CNS, it is usually associated with behavioral changes.

However, these changes are not necessarily species specific and can manifest in different ways. Incubation periods in dogs commonly range from two to eight weeks, and, although an incubation period of three years was recorded, the longest incubation period observed in a dog imported into Britain was just under eight months 33, with most incubation periods recorded in dogs fall between two and four weeks. Pupils may become dilated and pupillary reflexes slowed. Dogs may manifest photophobia, preferring to shun people and hide in dark places.

They may snap at imaginary flies and inflict self-injury at the site of the infecting wound, sometimes tearing away flesh down to the bone. As they become increasingly irritable and aggressive they may attack and bite anything they encounter, including restraining chains or cages, and damage their teeth and injure their mouths in the process. Rabid dogs may develop a depraved appetite, swallowing a variety of objects, including wood, stones and soil. At this stage they may become disoriented and wander aimlessly, attacking people and other animals, and sometimes return home in an advanced stage of illness.

They develop a fixed stare, described as a far-away look, lose the ability to swallow, drool saliva and develop a hoarse howl as spasm and paralysis of the laryngeal muscles set in. Dogs may develop bouts of convulsive seizures which leave them exhausted or die suddenly during a seizure.

After one to seven days they become uncoordinated, develop progressive paralysis, become comatose and die. The most characteristic sign is drooping of the jaw. The muscles of mastication and deglutition are paralyzed and owners are often convinced that the dog has a bone stuck in its throat. The dogs drool saliva and may emit a choking sound or hoarse cough. After two to four days the paralysis spreads to the rest of the body and they die. Classification of a case of rabies as either dumb or furious may also vary with the stage of illness at which the animal is examined.

Foggin noted that 11,7 per cent of rabid dogs in Zimbabwe conformed to neither the furious nor the dumb rabies categories, and that many of these exhibited signs suggestive of cerebellar ataxia: aimless wandering and circling with the head held at a tilt, and emesis. Rabies does not appear to have a carrier phase in which the animal sheds virus but does not succumb to the disease. Animals infected almost invariable succumb to the disease. A few reports of dogs surviving rabies or developing chronic infection are available for West Africa, Ethiopia, India and China 95 but these are isolated reports and unconfirmed.

Less is known of incubation periods following natural infection in cats than in dogs, presumably because they are often exposed to infection during their nocturnal wanderings, but it is generally agreed that they have somewhat shorter incubation periods than dogs. Foggin noted that 89 per cent of unvaccinated cats that developed rabies in Zimbabwe manifested the furious form of the disease. Cats may froth at the mouth, show muscular tremors, dilated pupils and cast flashing stares at animate beings in their presence.

They may assume a threatening posture, with back arched and claws extended. They are less likely than rabid dogs to recognize or to respond to familiar persons and make unprovoked attacks, sometimes from behind, and often seek out the face of their victim. They may bite without releasing their grip and have to be prised off the victim. As the disease progresses, they may develop convulsions, an uncoordinated gait with ascending paralysis, become comatose and die.

In the paralytic form of the disease cats may become affectionate and purr, or hide as paralysis sets in, and death usually supervenes in one to two days. Incubation periods of two to 12 weeks have been recorded in cattle in southern Africa, but longer periods have been recorded elsewhere, including 87 weeks in experimental infections. Early signs of illness observed include separation from the rest of the herd, anorexia and docility or irritability.

Milk production drops and there may be increased sexual excitability, particularly in bulls. Pupils become dilated and cattle assume a fixed stare, grind their teeth, and sometimes develop pica.

The Natural History of Rabies - George M. Baer - Google книги

There is frequently paralysis of the tongue and jaw with copious salivation Figure 4 , and cattle often develop a characteristic hoarse bellow Figures 5 and 6 which is recognized by stockmen. Figure 4 Note profuse salivation in a rabid bovine By courtesy of Dr H. Figure 5 Rabid Afrikander ox showing salivation, bellowing and loss of condition By courtesy of Dr H. Figure 6 Rabbit cross-bred cow: note bellowing By courtesy of Dr H.

Aggression varies from a tendency to butt other cattle to mania with vicious attacks being made on humans, other animals or even inanimate objects such as fence posts. As the disease progresses there is locomotory disturbance, sometimes with posterior paresis, a swaying gait, tail paralysis, dragging of the hooves and tenesmus with diarrhoea and frequent urination.

There is usually a rapid loss of condition. After a morbid period of one to five days animals may assume ventral or lateral recumbency and die in convulsion, or become progressively paralyzed, comatose and die. Sometimes there is subcutaneous emphysema originating from pulmonary emphysema as a result of bellowing. In the paralytic form of the disease the excitatory phase is short or absent. Incubation periods of two to four weeks have been recorded in sheep and goats in South Africa, but periods of up to 17 weeks have been recorded elsewhere.

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Incubation periods of up to six weeks have been recorded in horses, and prodromal signs may include low grade fever, altered behaviour and rubbing or biting the site of the infecting wound. They may display marked sexual excitability, and attack furiously by biting and kicking at humans and any inanimate objects which they perceive as a threat or a restraint. The disease runs a course of five to eight days and as paralysis sets in the animals may fall repeatedly and finally remain down and thrash their legs about until they become comatose and die.

Some horses develop the paralytic form of the disease and wander or stagger about aimlessly, pressing their heads against solid objects and ultimately enter a rapidly progressive terminal paralysis. Rabies is seldom diagnosed in pigs, but rabid pigs may attempt to hide in corners of their pen, displaying aggressive behaviour and attempt to bite humans if approached, and sows may kill their offspring.

Wild animals will typically lose their fear of humans and other animals. For example, rabid yellow mongooses in South Africa are often found in or close to farm homesteads, outbuildings or stables. Only about 38 per cent of rabid mongooses are overly aggressive and humans are usually bitten when they attempt to handle what are perceived to be tame animals.

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The other species of mongoose which develop rabies in southern Africa behave similarly to yellow mongooses, except that nocturnal species may become active in daylight. Non-aggressive rabid jackals lose their fear of humans and dogs and approach farm buildings in daylight but do not initiate attacks.

Rabid wild cats and genets behave similarly to rabid domestic cats in that they make unprovoked and vicious attacks on humans and other animals, including humans who are asleep at night indoors or outdoors, and they may also bite without releasing their hold on the victim. Like mongooses, they frequently approach farm buildings when rabid and can be particularly vicious if cornered. In one instance a rabid badger was responsible for the deaths of 47 sheep in a flock in Zimbabwe.

The most frequently observed signs of disease in rabid kudus were salivation, docility and paresis or paralysis. They sometimes displayed a playful attitude towards humans and farm animals and readily entered pens with cattle. In contrast, rabid small antelope such as duikers, were sometimes found to be very aggressive towards humans and livestock and capable of inflicting severe wounds with their sharp horns.

As in all wild animals, the features of rabies in major reservoir hosts, such as foxes, raccoons, skunks, coyotes and bats, have been described as difficult to discern. It is more important to be aware of abnormal behaviour than to look for classical signs of aggressive rabies: nocturnal animals become active in daylight, animals lose their fear of humans and may enter buildings and public spaces, either ignoring or attacking road traffic.

Those that appear abnormally tame and approachable constitute a particular threat. Figure 7 Rabid kudu that entered a farm building. By courtesy of Dr. There are no consistent macroscopic lesions in animals that die of rabies; often the only visible abnormality is congestion of the blood vessels of the leptomeninges. Animals may be emaciated and there may be self-inflicted injury, particularly at the site of infection in carnivores, or injuries sustained in fights. Foreign bodies may be found in the stomach, particularly in monogastric animals, and dogs that have strayed may harbour numerous ectoparasites, such as ticks.

The most significant microscopic lesions occur in the CNS, and cranial and spinal ganglia, and were first described in the s. They may contain a basophilic internal structure, or one or more vacuoles, and are sometimes surrounded by a clear halo. Negri bodies tend to vary in size depending on the host, being large in dogs and cattle, and are found most commonly in neurons of the hippocampus, or in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in cattle.

They are found less frequently in glial cells, in ganglion cells of the salivary glands and adrenal medulla, and in the retina. The nodules are not invariably associated with degenerative neurons and occur in both white and grey matter, as does diffuse gliosis, and there is a variable degree of meningitis. Vacuolar lesions similar to those of the subacute spongiform encephalopathies of humans and lower animals have been described in naturally or experimentally infected cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, horses, foxes and skunks. In the absence of Negri bodies, however, lesions in ganglia are not specific for rabies, but lack of lesions in the Gasserian ganglion is considered to be an indication that a diagnosis of rabies is unlikely.

It is important to be aware, as discussed above, that rabies induces abnormal behavior. A history of immunization renders a diagnosis of rabies less likely, but there are numerous instances on record of the disease occurring even in animals which have received multiple vaccinations. In instances where a domestic animal has been provoked to furious behaviour or to attack humans or other animals, yet appears to exhibit its normal pattern of behaviour on examination, authorized persons in most countries these are state veterinary officials may make the decision to confine the animal and keep it under observation for a period of ten days, and to kill it for laboratory examination if it develops overt signs of the disease.

This applies particularly to vaccinated animals in situations where exposure of the animal to infection appears to have been unlikely. Feral animals, animals showing signs of illness considered to be suggestive of rabies, or animals whose owner and history cannot be traced should be killed for examination at the time that the suspicion of rabies arises.

Diagnostic tests should preferably be performed on CNS tissue and therefore animals should be killed in such a manner as to avoid damaging the cranium. Protective clothing Figure 9 should be worn while collecting specimens and should include gloves, an impermeable apron, face mask or visor, and personnel involved should be immunized.

The hippocampus is commonly used for the diagnosis of rabies, but the distribution of lesions or virus antigen and infectivity varies, and it should be routine to take tissue samples from a variety of sites in the brain, with the brain stem the most important component.

In the past samples were also submitted in 10 per cent buffered formalin for histopathological examination; however, these techniques are less sensitive and no longer recommended for primary diagnosis. Formalin also inactivates the virus and therefore excludes tests involving virus isolation. Where small animals are involved, the whole brain may simply be placed in the glycerol-saline preservative.

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Figure 9 Veterinarian in full protective clothing removing the head of an ox that died of rabies. Adequate samples for making an accurate diagnosis may also be collected in 5 mm wide-bore, plastic drinking straws or a 2 ml disposable pipette by a method which obviates the need to skin the head and saw the cranium to expose the brain. In large animals, straw samples may be taken through a hole made by driving a metal punch or large nail through an orbit or the forehead into the cranium.

Virus antigen or infectivity may be demonstrated in other tissues for example salivary glands or nuchal skin biopsies when brain material is not available. Examination of salivary glands also provides valuable epidemiological information on the excretion of the virus by different vertebrates. Specimen containers needed to be sealed tightly and packed in sufficient absorbent material to soak up the entire liquid contents of the containers should they leak or break during transmission to the laboratory.

This gold standard method demonstrates lyssavirus antigen in impression smears of fresh brain by immunofluorescence. The conjugates are either available commercially or manufactured locally and should be validated for sensitivity and specificity against the diversity of virus lineages and variants in the region before use. The test requires only one to three hours to perform, and provides reliable results on fresh specimens in per cent of cases.

Inclusion bodies frequently lose their intracellular position in impression smears, and the structures demonstrated by immunofluorescence range from characteristic Negri bodies with inner structure, to fine particles, sometimes termed rabies dust. Most laboratories use immunofluorescence as the sole diagnostic test and resort to confirmatory testing RT-PCR, cell culture or mouse inoculation test in instances where a negative result is recorded in an animal which has potentially been involved in the exposure of a human to infection or cases of an inconclusive DFA result.

Routine DFA testing uses an immunoglobulin that will detect all lyssavirus species, and characterization of the lyssavirus species or strains can be performed by using monoclonal antibodies in the DFA or the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR followed by DNA sequencing. These tests are usually only performed in specialized laboratories. When only fixed tissue is available for examination, the tissue can be treated with trypsin to unmask antigen prior to performing the immunofluorescence test. Immunoperoxidase methods can be used as an alternative to the DFA test with the same sensitivity, 68, for example, the rapid immunohistochemical test DRIT.

This test has now been evaluated in several countries and can be used as a diagnostic assay for rabies, with a performance equal to that of the DFA. Rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic tests RIDT or lateral-flow devices LFD are available 93, , for use in low resource settings.

However, specificity and sensitivity are lower in comparison to the DFA, and batch-to-batch variation has been observed, implying that these devices do not produce consistent results. The isolation of virus by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspension into weaned mice was the standard diagnostic method before the widespread adoption of the immunofluorescence test. The method is sensitive, yielding isolates from virtually all infected specimens received at the laboratory in a well preserved state, but it may take up to four weeks or longer to obtain a final result.

Quicker results may be obtained by using suckling mice and sacrificing individuals for examination by immunofluorescence from the third or fourth day after inoculation onwards. The virus may be isolated in a variety of cell line cultures and greatest sensitivity is claimed for neuroblastoma cells of murine and human origin. Since lyssaviruses are poorly cytopathic, isolation needs to be demonstrated by immunofluorescence DFA of test cultures. Under optimum conditions, isolation of virus can be achieved in two to four days. Real-time RT-PCR assays are significantly more sensitive up to fold , than conventional RT-PCR assays, and are also more successful in the detection of viral nucleic acid in formalin-fixed tissues 66 and severely decomposed material.

Therefore, these tests should only be performed in suitably equipped and staffed laboratories. Ante- mortem rabies diagnosis is not routinely performed on animals but can be used to diagnose rabies in humans to determine patient care and to exclude other infectious diseases. Clinical diagnosis is unreliable, as demonstrated in a retrospective study in Malawi where Antibodies to lyssaviruses may be demonstrated by a variety of methods including indirect immunofluorescence, complement fixation, haemagglutination-inhibition, radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunoassay and neutralization tests 56, 65 with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition RFFIT and the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay FAVN most often used.

These tests can be used to establish a diagnosis of rabies ante- mortem in human patients who developed an antibody response but are rarely useful because antibody production tends to occur late in the course of the disease. This approach is even less practical in animals because antibody production is inconsistent. In humans rabies can be confused with tetanus, bacterial and viral meningitis, cerebritis and acute flaccid paralysis poliomyelitis as well as non-infectious conditions caused by drug abuse and mental disorders. The mainstay of successful rabies control programmes is the immunization of a sufficient proportion of the main reservoir host population to achieve herd immunity and thus to prevent outbreaks of the disease.

Even though rabies has been preventable by vaccination since the 19th century, it still causes more human deaths than any other zoonotic disease 99, and dog mediated rabies is still the principal source of human infections with most cases reported from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Elimination of dog rabies has been shown to be a feasible strategy in several parts of the world including the United Kingdom, Western Europe and North America. The immunogenicity of the inactivated nerve tissue vaccines originally used in humans and lower animals was generally poor but improved after potency assays were introduced in However, the vaccines caused paralytic neuritis and encephalomyelitis in a proportion of recipients due to an auto-allergic demyelinating reaction induced by the lipoprotein myelin, present in the nerve tissue from which the vaccines were prepared the myelins of different species share antigens.

From the s onwards, there was a trend in developed nations towards replacing nerve tissue vaccines with attenuated or so-called modified live virus vaccines for veterinary use. A range of highly effective, safe and thermostable, inactivated veterinary vaccines, prepared from virus grown in a variety of primary and cell line cultures, is now available. The more potent vaccines may be used in pups and the progeny of other carnivores as young as four to six weeks of age, or 11 weeks if the dam has been immunized, and booster doses need to be administered at three yearly intervals.

Young herbivores may be vaccinated initially at the age of four months, or nine months if the dam has been immunized, with boosters being administered every one, two or three years depending on the antigen content of the vaccine and the prevailing challenge rate. For mass canine vaccination campaigns, the use of inactivated rabies vaccine is recommended by the WHO and OIE since it is less sensitive to changes in temperature.

The components of a rabies control programme is multifaceted and typically include among others aspects of vaccinology, epidemiology, diagnostics, animal primary health, human health, dog ecology, dog population management, and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the affected communities. Stage 1: Assessment of rabies epidemiology, development of a short- term rabies action plan. Stage 2: Development of a detailed national rabies prevention and control strategy.

Specific critical activities determine whether a country progresses to the next stage. Not all of the activities are mandatory for advancement, but they nevertheless provide guidelines towards control and elimination of rabies. The categories are:. The frequency with which campaigns need to be conducted depends on the prevalence of the disease, the age structure of the dog population, and the rate of recruitment of susceptible individuals to the population.

For practical purposes, vaccination campaigns are generally conducted at yearly intervals and all dogs over the minimum age are vaccinated or re-vaccinated on these occasions unless the owner can produce proof of immunization status. Once control of dog rabies has been achieved, it may be necessary to maintain a cordon sanitaire by continuing to conduct vaccination campaigns along borders where the disease could be reintroduced.

The Natural History of Rabies

Other animals including cats generally play a lesser role in the propagation of rabies and should be included in vaccination campaigns where they are a problem in rabies transmission. The success of campaigns is judged by continuing to monitor for the occurrence of the disease, and it cannot be assumed that complete control has been achieved until the affected area has remained free of rabies for at least two years. It is generally claimed that 70 to 80 per cent vaccination coverage is required in order to achieve control of the disease in dogs, but this depends on the transmission rate in the area concerned.

Fully susceptible domestic pets which are exposed to infection by a proven rabid animal should be destroyed, but dogs which are immunized in conformity with legal requirements should be given a booster and kept under observation for three months. Immunization of wild animals in captivity are generally discouraged and in many countries may be performed only with the express approval of the state veterinary service when, for instance, valuable breeding animals of endangered species are involved.

Uncertainty or a false sense of security may arise when wild animals that are kept as pets are immunized since the efficacy of the vaccine in the species concerned may be unknown, as may be the history of possible exposure of the animal to infection. Vaccination of farm herbivores is generally made optional, to be performed at the discretion and expense of the owner when problems with rabies are encountered.

The removal or destruction of unvaccinated dogs has been found to be counter-productive as a means of controlling rabies where dogs are unrestricted. Owing to the recuperative reproductive capacity of populations of unrestricted dogs, it is estimated that 50 to 80 pet cent of individuals must be removed each year if the campaign is to have a sustained effect on the population, and it is much more effective to reduce the carrying capacity of the neighbourhood through proper refuse disposal. Import and quarantine regulations constitute another important facet of rabies control.

Some countries which are free of rabies in terrestrial species, require imported dogs to have proof of vaccination status. In regions where dog rabies was eliminated, the incidence of rabies in wildlife increased dramatically. In Europe, it was the red fox that became the principal rabies vector and reservoir, while species such as raccoons, skunks, various fox species and coyotes became important reservoirs in North America. The basic requirements for oral immunization of animals are that the viruses or recombinants used in oral vaccines should be easy to produce in high concentration, stable at high ambient temperatures, and immunogenic for the target species without being pathogenic for non-target species.

Baits should be capable of mass production, attractive to the target species and readily chewed so that the immunizing agent is liberated when the bait is taken. The possibility was raised that SAD virus derivatives could produce disease and become established in non-target species which took baits, particularly rodents and mustelids, but the problem did not materialize in the field. Baits can be distributed economically by helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft but are generally attractive to a wide range of vertebrates, and greater selectivity for the intended target species can be attained by placing baits by hand in appropriate niches.

During the s, the vaccination of foxes in Europe was extended to 15 countries and proved to be extremely successful, with minor setbacks where vaccination was discontinued too soon, allowing infection to be reintroduced from areas where the disease was still present to areas where eradication had already been achieved. Nevertheless, before the turn of the century control had been achieved in western Europe, and it became necessary to extend the campaign to eastern Europe.

Control of rabies in wildlife is considerably more complex in North America than it is in Europe, with more vector species, sometimes overlapping in distribution, and much vaster areas being involved. Although no universal approach to the control of rabies in wildlife in North America is possible, a number of programmes have been instituted to address specific problems. In Ontario, Canada, where there is a complicated situation, with rabies in raccoons, skunks and foxes all being involved as vectors, a programme of capture, vaccination and release of animals and oral immunization of raccoons with the ERA derivative of SAD virus has proved to be effective in controlling the threat of infection to humans.

Rabies is a notifiable disease and it is the duty of state veterinary officials, including veterinarians and animal health inspectors, to investigate incidents of potential exposure of humans to infection and to report diagnostic findings on the animal concerned to the medical personnel responsible for treating the exposed humans. This assessment should include the behaviour and health status of the animal concerned, rabies vaccination history, animal species and geographical location.

If possible, the suspect animal should be identified and euthanized, if rabies are suspected, for laboratory examination. If a reliable negative laboratory result is obtained, prophylactic treatment may be discontinued but should not be delayed awaiting laboratory confirmation. When the history is unclear or uncertain prophylaxis should be initiated according to the guidelines.

The guidelines produced by WHO are only recommendations, and the decision to implement such schedules resides with the government agencies which select policies for their own countries. Rabies is fatal and it is important to prevent it by immunization immediately within 48 hours after a suspect or proven exposure to the virus in addition to wound management. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis consists of administration of the vaccine and anti-rabies immunoglobulin.

Immunoglobulin is used to provide immediate protection until vaccine-induced immunity becomes effective, but the timing and dosage of passively administered antibody must be controlled or else there is interference with the response to the vaccine. An inactivated and purified vaccine prepared from virus grown in human diploid cell cultures was developed during the s and became increasingly available for use in humans during the s and s. Consequently, cheaper inactivated vaccines for use in humans have been developed from virus grown on primary chick embryo cells or Vero line cells or from virus grown in duck embryos and subjected to a high degree of purification and concentration.

Several other vaccines of a similar nature have been developed, but have not found wide usage, or are used mainly in eastern Europe, the former USSR and China. Nerve tissue vaccines induce more severe adverse reactions and are less immunogenic and since , the WHO has recommended discontinuation of production and use of these vaccines. WHO prequalifies vaccines to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy and this involves a review of the production process and quality control procedures, testing the consistency of lots and an audit of the manufacturing facilities.

Three classes of biological products are available for passive immunization; human rabies immunoglobulin, equine rabies immunoglobulin and highly purified Fab immunoglobulin. Rabies immunoglobulins are in short supply throughout the world and new technologies are being explored including the use of monoclonal antibodies. High risk occupational groups can also receive pre-exposure prophylaxis. Booster doses are usually administered every two to three years depending on the level of risk, i. There are no contraindications for post-exposure prophylaxis in infants, pregnant women or immunocompromised individuals.

However, rabies immunoglobulin should be administered in category II and III exposures if the patients are immunocompromised. People taking chloroquine for malaria treatment or prophylaxis may have a reduced response to intradermal rabies vaccination and should receive the vaccine intramuscularly. There have been a few instances of vaccine failure, but most cases involved patients in whom treatment was delayed, or who failed to receive immunoglobulin or the full course of treatment, or who had underlying disease. Updated 15 Aug Preferred citation: Anipedia, www.

Introduction Rabies rabidus, L. Aetiology Viruses in the order Mononegavirales , family Rhabdoviridae rhabdos, Gr. Figure 1 Black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas. Figure 2 Bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis. Figure 3 Yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata. Asia Rapid population growth and urbanization in much of Asia have created conditions which are highly conducive to the occurrence of rabies and the cosmopolitan lineage is wide spread throughout the Asian continent. North America In North America, rabies was first described in dogs and foxes in New England in the mid-eighteenth century and it has been suggested that the disease was introduced via dogs by European colonists.

Domestic animals Because rabies affects the CNS, it is usually associated with behavioral changes. Figure 8 Negri bodies in a neuron. Acid fuchsin-methylene blue staining method. Pathology There are no consistent macroscopic lesions in animals that die of rabies; often the only visible abnormality is congestion of the blood vessels of the leptomeninges. The categories are: Legislation pertaining to rabies control and elimination. Data collection and analysis for an effective surveillance network. Laboratory diagnostic capacity at national and regional levels. Disease prevention and control strategies.

Oral vaccination In regions where dog rabies was eliminated, the incidence of rabies in wildlife increased dramatically. An attenuated rabies vaccine for domestic animals produced in tissue culture. Canadian Veterinary Journal , 5, ACHA, P. Rabies in the Tropics—history and current status. Rabies in the Tropics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales. Archives of Virology , 8 , A review of non-bite transmission of rabies virus infection. British Veterinary Journal , , Epidemiology of rabies in India. Electron microscope observations on rabies virus by negative staining.

Virology , 18, Rabies in a laboratory worker—New York. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 26, Unpublished Laboratory Records,— ARAI, Y. Characterization of Sri Lanka rabies virus isolates using nucleotide sequence analysis of nucleoprotein gene. Acta Virologica , 45, Survey on dogs in Natal and KwaZulu. Control of rabies in foxes: What are the appropriate measures? Veterinary Record , , Epidemiology and campaign against rabies in Franceand in Europe. Oral wildlife rabies vaccination field trials in Europe, with recent emphasis on France.

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Host switching in Lyssavirus history from the Chiroptera to the Carnivora orders. Journal of Virology , 75, BAER, G. Pathogenesis to the central nervous system. The Natural History of Rabies. New York: Academic Press, 2, 2. Oral rabies vaccination: an overview. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 10 10 , Experimental rabies infection in the Mexican freetail bat.

Journal of Infectious Diseases , , Oral vaccination of dogs fedcanine adenovirus in baits. American Journal of Veterinary Research , 50, A model in mice for the pathogenesis and treatment of rabies. The pathogenesis of street rabies virus in rats. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 38, Successful protection of humans exposed to rabies infection by post-exposure treatment with the new human diploid cell rabies vaccine and antirabies serum.

Journal of the American Medical Association , , First administration to humans of a monoclonal antibody cocktail against rabies virus: safety, tolerability, and neutralizing activity. Vaccine , 26 47 , Control and prevention of canine rabies: the need for building laboratory-based surveillance capacity. Antiviral Research , 98 3 , Simptome van hondsdolheid by huis- en plaasdiere in Suid-Afrika en Suidwes-Afrika. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 50, Non-bite transmission of rabies in kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros.

Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 49, A simple technique for the rapid diagnosis of rabies in formalin-preserved brain. Simplified technique for the collection, storage and shipment of brain specimens for rabies diagnosis. Laboratory Techniques in Rabies. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Simplified and adequate sampling and Rabies preservation techniques for rabies diagnosis in Mediterranean countries. Purified chick embryo cell PCEC rabies vaccine for human use— laboratory data. BELL, J. Allergic encephalitis, rabies antibodies andthe blood—brain barrier. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine , 94, Overview of rabies in the Americas. Virus Research , , Rabies and infections by rabies-related viruses. Canine rabies ecology in Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases , 11 9 , The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe.

Rabies in dogs Canis familiaris. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 66, Rabies in jackals Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 66 1 , Efficacy of SAD Berne rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal Canis mesomelas and Canis adustus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases , 31, Innocuity studies of SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine in various Zimbabwean wild non-target species. Vaccine , 15, Vaccine , 17, Ecology and epidemiology of fox rabies. Reviews of Infectious Diseases , 10, Transmission of rabies virus: importance of the species barrier. Vaccinating wild animals against rabies. Revue Scientifique et Technique , 7, Nandi and M. Abstract: Rabies, a fatal neurological disease of warm blooded animals, is not only a national but also a global problem. The disease is of paramount importance because of its global distribution, wide host range including a number of wild animals and extremely high case fatality rate.

In spite of development of anti-rabies vaccine by Pasteur in , the disease is still endemic in about countries in the world where 2. The dog is the main perpetuator of rabies in developing country including India, it is to be emphasized to bring all the dogs under immunization umbrella or to control the unauthorized stray dogs. Over the time, there is lot of development in the field of immunology, vaccinology and diagnostic arena, the disease is still endemic particularly in developing countries. Few countries viz. However, cooperation and collaboration of people from the different field should work in a coordinated manner to control the rabies in animals particularly the stray dogs, main source of infection to animals and human beings.

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Return to Book Page. Divided into six main sections, this title covers topics such as the rabies virus, including antigenic and biochemical characteristics; pathogenesis, including the immune response to the infection, pathology, and latency; diagnostic techniques; rabies epidemiology in a variety of wild and domestic animals; and rabies control. Get A Copy. Hardcover , Second edition , pages. More Details Original Title. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.