The Jacobites at Urbino: An Exiled Court in Transition

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Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions. Manufacturer warranty may not apply Learn more about Amazon Global Store. Product details Hardcover: pages Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; ed. Review 'If court culture was ultimately about power, what should we make of the courts of the powerless, those built around dethroned, exiled royal dynasties? No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers.

Write a customer review. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery on millions of eligible domestic and international items, in addition to exclusive access to movies, TV shows, and more. His artistic theories shaped tastes in Western Europe and defined the tenets of neoclassicism, which was the dominant artistic movement in Europe from the second half of the eighteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Bologna was worth a visit to study the paintings of Reni — , the Carraccis and Guercino — which were scattered about the churches and palaces of the town.

Quite a lot of Scottish painters also visited Venice to see the works of Titian — and of the other great sixteenth-century Venetian painters. Some, like Katherine Read — , travelled to Venice in order to meet Rosalba Carriera — , who was then one of the most famous pastellists in Western Europe. Rome also attracted Scottish painters because there was already a Scottish community established in the city. In the eighteenth century, the role of the city as artistic capital of Western Europe was further strengthened by the growing interest in classical antiquity and, until the French invasion in , an increasing number of painters came to finish off their training.

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Rome was a cosmopolitan city with tourists and artists coming from all over Europe. This street lay in the heart of the Scottish community, being the location of the Scots College; it was also very close to the Palazzo Muti, where the exiled Stuart family lived. During the second half of the eighteenth century, young Scots arriving in Rome sought the help and advice of Gavin Hamilton and Jacob More, who had very successful practices in the city.

Hamilton was engaged in various activities: he worked as an art-dealer, he carried out excavations on the ancient sites of Ostia, Tivoli, Tor Colombaro and Monte Cagnolo, and he was also a renowned painter. With his rival Anton Raphael Mengs — , Hamilton was the leading history painter in Rome, whose paintings helped establish a taste for Neoclassicism in Western Europe. Indeed, his works were praised by Winckelmann and influenced many artists such as Jacques-Louis David — as well as the sculptors Antonio Canova — , Bertel Thorvaldsen — and Tobias Sergel — W hen Ramsay stayed in Rome, he was visited by many of his fellow countrymen too.

Among all these painters, Alexander Runciman and Allan were the most deeply impressed by Hamilton and when they returned to Scotland they both longed to work as history painters. Thus, the successful career of Hamilton and More and the contact with these artists in Italy encouraged young Scottish painters to specialise in genres other than portrait painting and it helped diversify Scottish painting, which until the end of the eighteenth century was limited to portraiture. The French academy in Rome was established in by Colbert to welcome promising young French artists, winners of the Prix de Rome , in order to study art and architecture.

Along with the students, foreign artists could attend the daily life classes provided by the French academy from These life classes, which consisted in drawing from live nude male models, were popular with Scottish painters, for instance, when in Rome, Ramsay regularly attended the classes of the French academy; Alves — and Maxwell, who studied at the Accademia del Nudo , won a prize for their drawings.

If artists wanted to draw from a live nude, they could either hire a model or, as David Wilkie used to do, they could draw their own body. Scottish painters were also admitted to the Accademia di San Luca. This academy had been founded in and was one of the oldest fine art institutions in Western Europe. Unlike the French academy, it did not consistently provide classes before but painters could copy the collection of paintings and of plaster casts of antique sculptures belonging to the academy.

If they were introduced by an academician, painters could also take part in the concorso Clementino and the concorso Balestra , the two competitions organised by the academy.


Being a member of the Academy also helped to find patrons. Gavin Hamilton and Jacob More were the only two Scottish painters to be elected members of the Accademia di San Luca , in and 36 respectively, and it was probably for this reason that Marcantonio Borghese — hired them to paint one room each in his villa. Thanks to the recommendations of the Jacobite Andrew Lumisden — , Byres — , Morison — , Cunningham c.

Hamilton and Provan worked with Masucci c. The main tasks of young pupils were to improve their drawing technique, to help their masters with their paintings and to copythe works of the great Italian painters. They generally went to copy paintings in churches and some had the permission to study the works of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel and of Raphael in the Stanze.

Then they often went to study the collection of classical sculptures displayed in the Capitoline Museum and in the Pio-Clementino Museum, which were opened in and respectively.

The Jacobites at Urbino, An Exiled Court in Transition by Edward Corp | | Booktopia

The importance of drawing and painting from classical sculptures to their training as is represented in the portrait of Allan 37 painted by Corvi — In the hierarchy of genres of painting history painting was at that time considered the noblest form of art; young artists who wanted to become successful history painters had to draw their inspiration from the greatest Italian Renaissance and Baroque masters. In addition to Raphael and Michelangelo, they had to study carefully the works of Titian and Correggio — as well as the paintings of Annibale Carracci — , Guido Reni and Domenichino — , who were the leaders of the baroque style.

Thus, in Italy, many Scottish painters made copies after these masters; the work of Raphael and Michelangelo was the most studied by these painters, closely followed by the painting of Carracci and Reni. For instance, Raeburn preferred to study the works of Caravaggio and his followers.

In his Ph. We do not know if he copied some of his works but he certainly saw paintings by Caravaggio, the inventor of chiaroscuro whose art was at the origin of an aesthetic revolution at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century he was not generally considered as an example to be followed by young artists, yet quite a few Scottish painters copied his paintings: Skirving copied The Cardsharps and the Fortuneteller. Today, apart from Batoni who has recently been rediscovered, all these painters have fallen into oblivion.

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Batoni is best known for his numerous portraits of travellers. Back in the second half of the eighteenth century, he was the most fashionable portraitist in Rome. His main rival was the German Mengs but he was by far the favourite painter of British grand tourists. Born in Tuscany, he moved to Rome at the end of the s and worked in the studios of Conca, Masucci and Imperiali. His reputation was first founded on his drawings and on his history paintings.

He completed many altar pieces and devotional pictures for various churches in Rome; he also painted scenes taken from classical history and mythology. These portraits particularly influenced Scottish painters. This portrait displays smoothness and a degree of finish unusual for Raeburn at the time but which reminds us of Batoni. The two portraitists had been friends since the s, when Ramsay met him in the studio of Imperiali and, whenever he was in Rome, Ramsay saw Batoni regularly.

Ramsay admired his colleague and, in , he sent his son John to study drawing under Batoni. Moreover, it is very likely that Ramsay recommended his former pupil Gabriel Matthias to enrol in the studio of the Italian painter. The parts of the hand on which light is falling are slightly enhanced with white chalk which defines shape; the shadow is represented by intertwining hatchings. Both painters also used red chalk to draw the outlines.

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They could not get thorough artistic training in their native country, so if they wanted to become accomplished painters they had no other option but to leave Scotland. Their self-imposed exile generally lasted from one to three years, but thanks to the financial support of their patrons a few painters were able to remain abroad for a longer period. It is possible that they opted for this permanent exile because they had been unable to find patrons for their work in Great Britain, let alone Scotland. Indeed, very few of the Scottish painters who returned to Britain after their sojourn in Italy were able to work in Scotland because of the lack of patronage.

In fact most of them went into another exile in order to open a studio in London, the main artistic centre of Great Britain.

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This time it is debatable as to whether they were in anyway abroad as Scotland formed one component of the British state. However the fact remains that they were forced to work outside Scotland and so involuntary, albeit commercially lucrative exile is still probably the most appropriate term to describe their relocation. Their training abroad contributed to the development and diversification of Scottish painting through the influence it had on other British painters and upon the new academies which were developed in Scotland in the later eighteenth century. These painters had not only improved technically, they were also deeply influenced stylistically by ancient and contemporary Italian art, and their return to Britain ensured future generations would be exposed to both the styles and techniques they picked up abroad.

Today, Scottish painting is very often compared with Dutch painting, but until the end of the eighteenth century the influence of Italian painting is clearly visible on Scottish art, and that is in no small part due to the return of the artistic exiles. List of Scottish painters including miniaturists and pastellists who visited Italy between and Aikman William birth: —death: : in Italy from — Alexander Cosmo — : — Alexander John —c. Allan David — : — Alves James — : — Brown John — : — Byres James — : — Chalmers George c.

Clerk James c. Clerk Alexander fl. Cochran William — : c. Cockburn Patrick: — Cooper Richard c. Cunningham Edward Francis c. Erskine Colin Nicholas c. Erskine David: — Forbes Anne — : — Foulis James — : — Graham John c.

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    Patoun William fl. Provan Samuel: Raeburn Henry — : — Read Katherine — : — Ross George birth c. Runciman Alexander — : — Skirving Archibald — : — Smibert John — : — Taylor John: c.