The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation (Milestones in American History)

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She is arrested and is to be tried for disturbing the peace. The arrest prompts a group of black citizens to initiate a one-day boycott of the public bus system which leads to a series of pickets and eventually a year-long boycott of the Montgomery public bus system and selected merchants. The boycott is successful and Montgomery's public bus system is desegregated. A Baptist minister, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference has begun to press for equal rights across the South. In September , angry white mobs in Little Rock, Arkansas, opposing the court ordered desegregation of public schools, threaten violence.

1865 - The 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the US.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower orders federal troops to protect nine black students integrating Central High School in Little Rock. In March , President John F. Kennedy signs Executive Order prohibiting federal government contractors from discriminating on account of race and establishing the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.


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Departing from previous presidential directives, this Order grants the Committee, initially chaired by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, authority to impose sanctions for violations of the Executive Order.

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President Kennedy states this enforcement authority signals a new "determination to end job discrimination once and for all. Right Arrow An arrow pointing to the right.


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18 of the most historic US civil rights moments of the last 150 years

Steele and Fred Shuttlesworth in Speakers called for nonviolent struggle, boycotts, work slow-downs and strikes. In the wake of the event, which remained peaceful, Wichita and Oklahoma City are targeted by sit-ins. Meanwhile, nine students created a national crisis as they tried to be the first African Americans to enroll at the newly desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

When the governor the Arkansas National Guard tried to prevent them from entering the school, public outcry led to a new judicial ruling and intervention by federal troops. Other students quickly joined. Seasoned direct action strategists James Lawson, Glen Smiley and Charles Walker arrived to advise the young activists. Dramatic footage of sit-ins in Nashville, Tennessee showed students being harassed and arrested for sitting at the lunch counter. Bernard Lafayette and John Lewis are key participants of the Nashville sit-ins—both go on to make profound contributions to the movement as leaders and trainers.

Rather than slow the sit-ins, the arrests publicized them, as sit-ins hit 50 American cities in just three months. One lunch counter after another became integrated. More than 3, people were voluntarily arrested in the sit-ins. The movement took advantage of another Supreme Court case in which expanded the ban on segregated interstate travel to include station restrooms, waiting areas and restaurants.

Seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D. Federal authorities stepped in to guarantee protection and a new group of mostly SNCC arrived to continue the Ride until they were arrested and jailed.

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Like the lunch counter sit-ins, more and more activists arrive to fill the seats of the jailed and beaten Riders. In just a few months the Freedom Riders had integrated interstate travel.

Thousands more joined diverse campaigns between to Confusing and discriminatory technicalities kept many African-Americans from voting. Despite volunteer dedication VEP enjoyed little success: progress was slow and marked by violence against rights workers, including murders. At the same time SNCC and the NAACP run into trouble in Albany, Georgia, where the police chief had studied Gandhian tactics in preparation for the confrontation and developed a counter-strategy to minimize police violence, send arrested protesters out of town, and avoid negative media coverage.

Timeline of the civil rights movement - Wikipedia

As that campaign floundered, a larger campaign got underway in Birmingham, Alabama in , where a selective buying boycott was pressuring local businesses for equal access to jobs and sit-ins hit Birmingham libraries and restaurants. Kneel-ins disrupted services in all-white churches. Demonstrations continued in violation of a court order barring further protest, resulting in hundreds of arrests, including that of King.

In a radical escalation of the conflict, over 1, young African-Americans, teenagers and even younger, walked out of school for a downtown protest where most were arrested. Youthful protests the following day were met with police dogs and high-pressure water cannons, provoking widespread international support for the movement as images are broadcast and published.

Within a year, the Omnibus Civil Rights Act outlawing segregation nationwide was signed into law.

go site Three student volunteers were murdered by local police. A subsequent march from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery was violently broken up by police before federal marshals and additional volunteers arrived to complete the initially aborted march. This provided greater momentum for the passage of a federal voting rights act, which was signed into law the following year, transforming the politics of the South. In subsequent years, King and the SCLC began placing a greater emphasis on economic justice, particularly ending segregated housing, which also afflicts northern cities.

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